Œ¤‹†‰Û‘è–¼F‰pŒê’®Žæ‚É‚¨‚¯‚éƒvƒƒ\ƒfƒBî•ñˆË‘¶“x‚Ì•ª•zŒXŒü

 

Ž–¼F’†‘º’q‰h

Š‘®FŒcœä‹`m‘åŠw‘åŠw‰@

@@@­ôEƒƒfƒBƒAŒ¤‹†‰ÈCŽm‰Û’ö2”N

 

—vŽ|

@–{Œ¤‹†‚ł́A•¶‚ð\¬‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚é—v‘f‚𓝌ê“I‚Ü‚Æ‚Ü‚è‚É•ª‚¯A‚»‚Ì‹æØ‚ê‚ðŽ¦‚·ƒvƒƒ\ƒfƒB‚́u“Œê“I‰C—¥‹@”\v‚Ì‘¤–ʂɏœ_‚𓖂āA“ú–{l‰pŒêŠwKŽÒ‚ª‰pŒê‰¹º•¶—‰ð‚É‚¨‚¢‚ăvƒƒ\ƒfƒBî•ñ‚ð‚Ç‚Ì’ö“x—˜—p‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚é‚Ì‚©‚ðŽÀŒ±‚É‚æ‚茟Ø‚µ‚½B

@‹ï‘Ì“I‚ɂ́A•¶Í“à‚̍\‘¢‚ðŽ¦‚·•¶–@“I—v‘f‚Æ‚µ‚Ă̍\•¶î•ñ(syntactic@information)‚ƁA”­˜b‰¹ºã‚Å•\Œ»‚³‚ê‚éƒvƒƒ\ƒfƒBî•ñ(prosodic information)‚»‚ꂼ‚ꂪŽ¦‚·“Œê‹@”\‚ðŒÌˆÓ‚É–µ‚‚³‚¹‚½•¶Íi“Œê-ƒvƒƒ\ƒfƒBƒ~ƒXƒ}ƒbƒ`•¶j‚ð‰¹ºŽhŒƒ‚Æ‚µ‚Ä—p‚¢‚½2Ží—Þ‚Ì’®ŠoŽÀŒ±‚É‚æ‚èA“ú–{l‰pŒêŠwKŽÒ‚̉¹º•¶—‰ð‚É‚¨‚¯‚钍–ڏî•ñ‚𖾂炩‚É‚·‚éŽÀŒ±‚ðs‚Á‚½BŽÀŒ±‚É‚Í‘ˆî“c‘åŠw‚ʼnpŒêŽö‹Æ‚𗚏C‚·‚é130–¼‚ªŽQ‰Á‚µA‰pŒê—Í‚ÌŽw•W‚Æ‚µ‚Ĕ팱ŽÒ‚ª—\‚ߎ󌱂µ‚Ä‚¢‚½Versant English Test‚̃XƒRƒA‚ð—p‚¢‚½B”팱ŽÒ‚̉pŒê—̓Œƒxƒ‹‚͏‰‹‰‚©‚ç’†‹‰‚Å‚ ‚éB

@ŽÀŒ±1‚ł́A”팱ŽÒ‚̓‰ƒ“ƒ_ƒ€‚É’ñŽ¦‚³‚ê‚é11•¶‚Ì“Œê-ƒvƒƒ\ƒfƒBƒ~ƒXƒ}ƒbƒ`•¶‚Æ11•¶‚̃m[ƒ}ƒ‹•¶AŒv22•¶‚̉¹º‚ð•·‚«A•·‚¢‚½‰¹º•¶‚ÌŽå—v•”–¼ŽŒ‚ðƒXƒNƒŠ[ƒ“‚É’ñŽ¦‚³‚ê‚é2‚‚̑I‘ðŽˆ‚©‚ç‘I‚ñ‚ʼnñ“š‚µ‚½BŽÀŒ±2‚ł́AŽÀŒ±1‚ÅŽg—p‚µ‚½•¶Í‚Ƀ[ƒpƒXƒtƒBƒ‹ƒ^ˆ—‚ð‚µ‚½‰¹º‚ð’ñŽ¦‚µA‰¹º“à‚̍\•¶î•ñ‚ªžB–†‚É‚È‚èƒvƒƒ\ƒfƒBî•ñ‚ª‹­’²‚³‚ꂽ‰¹º‚ð•·‚¢‚āA•¶Í‚ÌŽå•”ˆÊ’u‚ª“Á’è‚Å‚«‚é‚©‚Ç‚¤‚©‚ðŒŸØ‚µ‚½B

@Œ‹‰Ê‚Æ‚µ‚āAŽÀŒ±1‚É‚¨‚¢‚ẮAƒ^ƒXƒN‚ւ̐³‰ð‰ñ“š—¦‚Ɣ팱ŽÒ‚̉pŒê—Í‚É‹­‚¢‘ŠŠÖ‚ªŒ©‚ç‚ꂽBˆê•ûAŽÀŒ±2‚É‚¨‚¢‚ẮAƒ^ƒXƒN‚ւ̐³‰ð‰ñ“š—¦‚Ɣ팱ŽÒ‚̉pŒê—Í‚É•‰‚Ì‘ŠŠÖ‚ªŒ©‚ç‚ꂽB‚±‚ÌŒ‹‰Ê‚©‚çA‰‹‰‰pŒêŠwKŽÒ‚ªƒvƒƒ\ƒfƒBî•ñ‚ðd—v‚Ȏ肪‚©‚è‚Æ‚·‚éˆê•ûA‰pŒê—Í‚ªã‚ª‚é‚É”º‚¢\•¶î•ñ‚ÉŠî‚¢‚½‰¹º•¶—‰ð‚ðs‚¤‚悤‚É‚È‚é‰Â”\«‚ªŽ¦‚³‚ꂽB‚»‚Ì——R‚Æ‚µ‚ẮA‰pŒê—͂̍‚‚¢”팱ŽÒ‚͉pŒê‰¹º•¶—‰ð‚É‚¨‚¢‚ăvƒƒ\ƒfƒBî•ñ‚æ‚è‚àAŒêˆÓ‚âŒêŒ`‘ԂȂǍ\•¶î•ñ‚ÉŠÖ˜A‚µ‚½î•ñ‚É—Š‚Á‚½ˆ—‚ðs‚¤ˆê•ûA‰‹‰‰pŒêŠwKŽÒ‚͍\•¶î•ñ‚ÉŠÖ˜A‚µ‚½’mŽ¯‚ªó‚¢‚±‚Æ‚©‚特º‚É‚æ‚éƒvƒƒ\ƒfƒBî•ñ‚ÉŠî‚¢‚½‰ñ“š‚ðs‚¤‚±‚Æ‚ª„‘ª‚³‚ꂽB–{Œ¤‹†‚É‚æ‚èA‰pŒê—Í‚Ì‘Šˆá‚É”º‚¢‰pŒê‰¹º•¶—‰ð‚Ì•û—ª‚ªƒvƒƒ\ƒfƒBî•ñ‚ÉŠî‚¢‚½”»’f‚©‚ç\•¶î•ñ‚ÉŠî‚¢‚½”»’f‚ւƕω»‚ª¶‚¶‚é‰Â”\«‚ªŽ¦´‚³‚ꂽB

 

1. Introduction


This study focuses on the syntactic function of prosody in English spoken sentence and examines how Japanese EFL learners use prosodic cues in understanding aurally presented English sentences.@ Although language input is processed by a complex interaction of use of syntactic and prosodic information, demonstrating which of the information L2 learners tend to use more is attracting many researchersf attention. From results of previous studies, it can be assumed that prosodic cues are always the most important information for second language learners [1][2][3][7].@ Our purpose is to determine whether Japanese EFL learners rely heavily on prosodic cues in analyzing sentence structure in English as has been stated in previous studies.

 

2. Method

2.1. Task 1

The methodology for task 1 is similar to that of Read and Schreiberfs study on L1 sentence processing [8] and the study of Harley et al on L2 sentence processing [4].@ This task was to determine which of the information between prosodic and syntactic cues Japanese EFL learners would attend to the sentence structure, under conditions where syntax and prosody were placed in conflict (ambiguous sentences).@ The construction of ambiguous sentences was as follows: Two sentences were recorded separately, at normal speed with appropriate prosody that matched the sentences syntax, for example:

1) @[[The new teachers]ª[watch baseball on TV.]]

2) @[[The new teacherfs watch]ª[has stopped.]]

The sound was then edited to make replacement of the italicized and underlined segment of 1) by the italicized and underlined segment of 2), creating a prosodic contour in the stimulus sentence 1) that competed with the sentence syntax (shown as sentence 3)).@

3) @[[The new teachers]ª[watch has stopped.]]

The result of the sentence splicing was such that the stress falls before the head noun of the subject noun phrase. There were 11 ambiguous sentences edited in the same manner, and another 11 non-edited normal sentences in which subject noun phrase consisted of two words.@ Participants were asked to select the head noun of the subject noun phrase in the sentence from two possible answers after listening to each sentence.

 

2.2. Task 2

Task 2 was performed to determine the sensitivity to the prosodic information in spoken sound.@ 22 ambiguous and normal sentences that were used in experiment 1 were low-pass filtered at 50Hz.@ The method of low pass filtering is used to eliminate phonological information of the sound such as fricative sounds, while it still maintains the prosodic information such as fundamental frequency and intonation.@ After low-pass filtering at 50Hz, the output sentences have unclear phonological information and emphasized prosodic information.@ Conducting phonetic analysis on filtered sentences, we can find the position of rest between the segment of the subject noun phrase and the following words (e.g. in sentence 4) shown below, marked gªh).

4) @[[Your friendfs book]ª[was found in the box.]]

After listening to the sentence twice, on the third time, participants were asked to press the g1h key at the position of rest between the segment of the subject noun phrase and the following words.@ Since phonological information was unclear by the effect of low-pass filtering, participants had to listen to prosodic information to accomplish the task.@ Response time from the onset of the third play of the sound to pressing the key was measured and compared to correct response time.@

 

2.3. Subjects

130 adult subjects participated in this study.@ All of them were students in an English class in the faculty of law at Waseda University.@ They were asked to take the Versant English Test [6] prior to this research and we used the score as the barometer of their English level.@ Their English level was distributed from primary to intermediate.

 

3. Conclusions

The percentage of correct answers in task 1 was strongly correlated with the participantsf English levels.@ On the contrary, the percentage of correct answers in task 2 was negatively correlated with their English levels.@ From these results, we came to the conclusion that prosodic cues are the most important information for Japanese EFL learners at primary level, but as the learnersf English level becomes higher, they tend to rely more on syntactic cues in sentence comprehension.@ As the main reasons for this result, it can be inferred that as learnersf English improve, they use other information concerning to syntactic cues such as semantic and morphological information instead of prosodic information, while learners at primary level rely heavily on prosodic cues because they do not have other knowledge to rely on.@ This study revealed the possibility that the strategy of Japanese EFL learners transmutes from dependence on prosodic cues to syntactic cues in analyzing aurally presented English sentence.

 

References

[1]       Dussias, P., gSyntactic ambiguity resolution in L2 learnersh, SSLA, 25, 529-557, 2003

[2]       Felser, C., Roberts, L, Marinis, T., & Gross, R., gThe processing of ambiguous sentences by first and second language learners of Englishh, Applied Psycholinguistics, 24, 453-489, 2003

[3]       Fodor, J., gLearning to parse?h Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 27, 285-319, 1997

[4]       Harley, B., Howard, J., & Hart, D., gSecond language processing at different ages: do younger learners pay more attention to prosodic cues to sentence structure?h, Language Learning, 45, 43-71, 1995

[5]       Hincks, R., gUsing speech recognition to evaluate skills in spoken Englishh Lund University, Dept. of Linguistics Working Papers 49, 58-61, 2001

[6]       Marinis, T., Roberts, L, Felser, C., & Clahsen, H., @gGaps in second language sentence processingh, SSLA, 27, 53-78, 2005

[7]       Papadopoulou, D., & Clahsen, H., hParsing strategies in L1 and L2 sentence processingh, SSLA, 25, 501-528, 2003

[8]       Read, C., & Schreiber, P., Why short subjects are harder to find than long ones, gThe state of the arth, 78-101, Cambridge University Press, 1982